1. General Model Information
Name: Crop Environment Resource Synthesis
Main medium: air+terrestrial
Main subject: biogeochemistry
Organization level: ecosystem,population
Type of model: ordinary differential equations
Keywords: crop growth, corn, predictive, deterministic, soil, water, temperature, soil nitrogen dynamics
Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT)
CERES-Maize (Crop Environment Resource Synthesis) model is a
predictive, deterministic model designed to simulate corn growth, soil, water
and temperature and soil nitrogen dynamics at a field scale for one growing
season. It is related to
other CERES models, such as the CERES-Wheat model.
The model is used for basic and applied research on the effects of
climate (thermal regime, water stress) and management (fertilization practices,
irrigation) on the growth and yield of corn. It is also used to evaluate
nitrogen fertilization practices on nitrogen uptake and nitrogen leaching
from soil and in global change research to evaluate the potential effects of
climate warming and changes in precipitation and water use efficiency due
to increased CO2.
Potential dry matter production is calculated as a function of radiation,
leaf area index and reduction factors for temperature and moisture stress.
Six phenological stages are simulated, (based primarily on degree-days),
and leaf and stem growth rates are calculated (depending on phenological
Available photosynthate is initially partitioned to leaves and stems, and
later for ear and grain growth. Any remaining photosynthate is allocated
to root growth. However, if dry matter available for root growth is below a
minimum threshold, grain, leaves and stem allocations are reduced and the
minimum level of root growth occurs. Separate routines calculate water
balance, including runoff, infiltration, saturated and unsaturated water
flow and drainage. Mineral nitrogen dynamics and nitrogen availability for
crop uptake are also calculated.
Data used as input include:
The model provides information on above-ground dry matter, nitrogen
content, grain dry matter and nitrogen content, summaries of water balance
and soil mineral nitrogen. Accompanying information can be provided using
a decision support system called DSSAT. The model is public domain.
- Climate variables such as latitude, radiation and daily temperature
- Management variables such as sowing date, plant density, irrigation
- Crop genetic constants; and
- Soil/site parameters such as soil albedo, and soil layer thickness.
Author of the abstract:
CIESIN (CONSORTIUM FOR
INTERNATIONAL EARTH SCIENCE INFORMATION NETWORK):
II. Technical Information
Operating System(s): DOS
Programming Language(s): FORTRAN
III. Mathematical Information
Adams, R. M., C. Rosenzweig, R.M. Peart, J.T. Ritchie, B.A.McCarl, J.D. Glyer, R.B. Curry, J.W. Jones, K.J. Boote and L.H.Allen, Jr. 1990. Global climate change and US agriculture. Nature345:219-224.
Bachelet, D., and C.A. Gay. 1993. The impacts of climate change on rice yield: a comparison of four modelperformances. Ecol. Mod. 65:71-93.
Jones, C.A., and J.R. Kiniry. 1986. CERES-Maize: A simulation model of maize growth and development.Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Kiniry, J.R. 1991. Maize phasic development. In: Hanks, J. and J.T. Ritchie (eds),Modelling soil plant and soil systems, 55-69.
Mearns, L.O., C. Rosenzweig and R. Goldberg. 1992.Sensitivity analysis of the CERES-wheat model to changes ininterannual variability of climate. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Wu, Y., C.M. Sakamoto, and D.M. Botner. 1989. On the application of CERES-Maize model to the North-China Plain. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 49, 9-22.
V. Further information in the World-Wide-Web
VI. Additional remarks
Last review of this document by: T. Gabele Nov 21th 1997
Status of the document:
last modified by
Tobias Gabele Wed Aug 21 21:44:40 CEST 2002